Influence of partner

Many countries adopt a daylight-saving time (DST), where the societal clock is adjusted by 1 hour, advancing in spring and delaying in autumn.

​Some studies have assessed the impact of DST on clock entrainment. In a large study of 55,000 participants from Germany, Italy, Switzerland, France, Slovakia, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, researchers found chronotype-dependent differences in adjustments to DST, especially after the springtime change when clocks are advanced by an hour. Those who were classified as morning types adjusted more readily to the DST than those who were evening types, who had still failed to re-entrain (adjust their mid-point of sleep on free days or center of gravity of activity) within 3 weeks of the time transition.

Going to sleep and waking up together is one of the most intimate human actions. From an evolutionary perspective, sleeping in pairs can enhance the perceived physical and emotional security, which leads to a reduction of arousal levels and to increased quality and quantity of sleep.

​Yet, men and women respond differently to the presence of a bed partner.

The male perception of sleep is that sleep is important and a necessity, especially in relation to paid work. Men seem to have an understanding that their body will inform them when it is time to sleep and when their resources are used up. Co-sleeping is generally more disturbing for women than for men assessed by subjective reports, but also a mitigation through sexual contact is possible.

Due to lower physical strength and greater need for security against potential attackers, the soothing effect of co-sleeping is stronger among women. Moreover, women’s sleeping behavior is embedded in female social roles and responsibilities as a partner.

​In a study consisting of 5142 women in their midlife, unintentional partner behaviors like snoring, going to the toilet during the night or restlessness turned out to be most disturbing for women’s sleep. The findings indicate that actions beyond the control of their male partners have a highly significant correlation with women’s sleep quality. Whereas intentional disruptions like waking the female partner up to talk, for sex or because she disrupts his sleep had a low and nonsignificant correlation with the overall quality of women’s sleep.

Most people, men and women, reported to sleep better when a bed partner was present.

The difference between partners’ chronotypes and preferred time for sex don’t change with relationship length.

​Morning males prefer to have sex in earlier hours than evening males.

Male M-types declare that they have the highest desire for sex between 6:00 and 9:00 in the morning, whereas over 70% of evening types would prefer to have sex late in the evening, between 9:00 p.m. and midnight.

​An analogical effect is not observed in females, whose most desired time for sex is unrelated to their morningness-eveningness. Both M-type and E-type females prefer to have sex in the evening (although the former prefer to have it before 9:00 p.m., whereas the latter prefer after 9:00 p.m.)

​Furthermore, the between-partner difference in preferred time for sex was greater in couples with a more morning-oriented male.

​Morning-oriented females are generally more satisfied with their relationship than their evening-oriented ones, whereas in males no association between chronotype and satisfaction is observed.

The main findings of numerous studies show that:

1. similarity in chronotype between partners and female morningness fosters relationship satisfaction in females, but not in males;

2. morningness-eveningness is associated with preferred time for sex in males, but not in females, who in principle prefer evening hours;

3. actual time for sex is up to the female preference; and

4. sexual satisfaction in both genders is associated with lower discrepancy in their preferred time for sex and greater frequency of intercourse.

Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS; Hudson et al., 1981).

General relationship satisfaction was measured with the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS; Hendrick, 1988). This 7-item self-report scale is one of the most commonly used measures in the research of relationship quality

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